### Article

## Symmetric band complexes of thin type and chaotic sections which are not quite chaotic

In a recent paper we constructed a family of foliated 2-complexes of thin type whose typical leaves have two topological ends. Here we present simpler examples of such complexes that are, in addition, symmetric with respect to an involution and have the smallest possible rank. This allows for constructing a 3-periodic surface in the three-space with a plane direction such that the surface has a central symmetry, and the plane sections of the chosen direction are chaotic and consist of infinitely many connected components. Moreover, typical connected components of the sections have an asymptotic direction, which is due to the fact that the corresponding foliation on the surface in the 3-torus is not uniquely ergodic.

Consider (*m* + 1)-dimensional, *m* ≥ 1, diffeomorphisms that have a saddle fixed point *O* with *m*-dimensional stable manifold *W**s*(*O*), one-dimensional unstable manifold *W**u*(*O*), and with the saddle value σ different from 1. We assume that *W**s*(*O*) and *W**u*(*O*) are tangent at the points of some homoclinic orbit and we let the order of tangency be arbitrary. In the case when σ < 1, we prove necessary and sufficient conditions of existence of topological horseshoes near homoclinic tangencies. In the case when σ > 1, we also obtain the criterion of existence of horseshoes under the additional assumption that the homoclinic tangency is simple.

Invariant surfaces play a crucial role in the dynamics of mechanical systems separating regions filled with chaotic behavior. Cases where such surfaces can be found are rare enough. Perhaps the most famous of these is the so-called Hess case in the mechanics of a heavy rigid body with a fixed point. We consider here the motion of a non-autonomous mechanical pendulum-like system with one degree of freedom. The conditions of existence for invariant surfaces of such a system corresponding to non-split separatrices are investigated. In the case where an invariant surface exists, combination of regular and chaotic behavior is studied analytically via the Poincaré – Mel'nikov separatrix splitting method, and numerically using the Poincaré maps

We consider several examples of dynamical systems demonstrating overlapping attractor and repeller. These systems are constructed via introducing controllable dissipation to prototypic models with chaotic dynamics (Anosov cat map, Chirikov standard map, and incompressible three-dimensional flow of the ABC-type on a three-torus) and ergodic non-chaotic behavior (skew-shift map). We employ the Kantorovich–Rubinstein–Wasserstein distance to characterize the difference between the attractor and the repeller, in dependence on the dissipation level.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.